Natural Selection vs Artificial Selection | Mechanisms of Evolution
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Natural Selection vs Artificial Selection | Mechanisms of Evolution

September 4, 2019

Thanks for stopping by, today we are going
to talk about evolutionary selection, specifically Natural Selection and Artificial Selection. But before we get into that, let’s define
selection. Selection is the process by which inherited
traits are selected for or against and thus become more or less abundant in the population. Now let’s apply this definition to natural
selection. For natural selection to occur in a population
three criteria must be met. First, there must be variation in the population. -For example, brown beetles vs green beetles
of the same species. Second, The trait must be heritable. Which is to say, it can be passed on from
one generation to the next, through the genes. Third, more offspring are produced then the
environment can support. -In other words, a portion of all the offspring
will die because there aren’t enough resources to support that many offspring in the population. So in natural selection nature selects which
ones will die based of how their traits “fit” that environment. Going back to our beetle example, if there
is a drought one year and all of the green vegetation dies leaving only brown earth behind,
the brown beetle will thrive while the green population dwindles. Nature selected for the brown beetle through
a natural occurrence which favored the brown beetle. Now let’s compare this to Artificial Selection Artificial selection requires only two of
the three criteria; There is variation in the population and the trait is heritable. The difference with artificial selection is
that humans decide which traits are passed on, not nature. Artificial Selection is used in agriculture
and animal breeding all the time. People want cows that produce the best and
most milk, so they don’t breed ones that have low milk production. Likewise horses have a variety of breeds for
a variety of jobs, breeders use artificial selection to do this. All the different breeds of dogs are a result
of this as well. So natural selection and artificial selection
are really two sides of the same coin. Both are mechanism of evolutionary selection,
but the process by which they work is slightly different. I hope that helped, throw any questions you
have in the comments and be sure to subscribe for more helpful videos like this one. Thanks, we’ll catch you next time.

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  1. If those brown beetles are the ones being selected for their traits because of the environment and the green die off because they are vulnerable. How would you say those brown beetles would continue to evolve? Mutations, more change in the environment, gene flow, non- random mating, and genetic drift?

  2. This is a lie, for one thing, this video is 2:35 not 2 minutes and the second is the that dinosaurs became buildings is true, dinosaur are alive. For example: a pterodactyl became a airplane

  3. In fact, there is no artificial thing in the universe. Everything is a natural. Or let us say artificial thing is also a natural but it is human made

  4. I have a huge science test on evolution coming up. This video helped so much!

    Btw your channel is extremely underrated

  5. Question: elephants are being birthed with smaller tusks due to poaching. Is this artificial or natural selection? Humans are responsible for this change in population but they’re not intentionally selecting for smaller tusks. Does intention matter? Or is simple human interference always artificial selection?

  6. This post was an assignment for biology.
    What makes artificial selection so scary especially in animals is the lack of the 3rd criteria (environmental limits on population growth). The limits that this criterion imposes onto natural selection allows it to maintain balance between life forms and allows no lifeforms to gain an advantage over all others that is to big to ever overcome. In a way the main reason humans are so dominant today is because our intelligence allowed us to mold our environments and their limits to a degree. With artificial selection we now have the ability to create hereditary traits in animals and plants that have not been tested and altered by the 3rd criterion. In the past when we have brought organisms developed in one environment to another we have devastated entire ecosystems and on other occasions the have integrated themselves into the new environment seamlessly. AS could go either way as well and it is now completely up to us how it will go.

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