Poitevin horse
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Poitevin horse

August 29, 2019

The Poitevin, also called Mulassier,
Poitevin Mulassier or Trait Mulassier is a draft horse from the Poitou area of
France. It is a late-maturing breed with strong bones, known for its calm nature.
It is found in many solid coat colors, the result of crossbreeding with several
other European draft breeds throughout its history, and is the only French
draft horse to be found in bay dun. Today, Poitevins are used mainly for
driving, although some are used for riding and equine therapy.
Enthusiasts claim descent from the horses painted on the cave walls of
Lascaux, though this has not been verified by scientific studies. Horses
have been recorded in the area since at least the 10th century, and the regional
type was preferred by magistrates and clergy in medieval times. The Poitevin
breed as it is known today began to take shape in the early 17th century, as
engineers began draining the French marshes and brought with them their
draft horses, which were crossed with native horses. Since early in its
history, the Poitevin has been used extensively for the breeding of mules,
and although commonly called a draft horse, was not favored for agricultural
purposes. During the 19th century, the population of the Poitevin increased,
reaching 50,000 pure and crossbred mares by 1867. Crossbreeding with other draft
breeds led to concerns about the purity of the Poitevin population, but a small
group of breeders worked to preserve the remaining purebred population.
A studbook was created for the breed in 1884, and was closed in 1922. A
breeders’ association was created in 1923. The first half of the 20th century
saw declining populations of horses and mules due to increased mechanization,
and, by 1945, Poitevin breeding was oriented towards the production of meat.
The population dropped precipitously, and between 1970 and 1990 varied between
250 and 300 animals, with still lower levels seen in the early 1990s. A
genetic study released in 1994 showed genetic bottlenecking and a severe risk
of inbreeding, and led to the establishment of a conservation plan.
Despite a slight increase in popularity at the beginning of the 21st century,
the Poitevin is still in danger of extinction, with a slightly
downward-trending population. Characteristics
The body of the Poitevin is slender for a heavy horse and longer than other
French draft breeds. It stands 15.3 to 17.1 hands high, with stallions
averaging 16.2 hands and mares 15.3 hands. The heavy clay and rich minerals
of its homeland help it to develop strong bones, and it is late to reach
physical maturity, generally around 6 to 7 years.
The head is long and strong, with a convex profile and thick, long ears. The
neck is long and the shoulders are sloping. The chest is broad and deep,
the withers prominent, the back long and broad, and the hindquarters strong. The
legs are well developed and powerful, with large joints. The Poitevin has
large hooves, an advantage in wet environments, as an adaptation to the
alternately hard and waterlogged marshes upon which it developed. The lower legs
are well feathered, and the mane and tail are long and thick. The Poitevin is
gentle, calm and robust. Historically the breed has been known for its slow
movement and disinterest in pulling, although it can produce significant
power if necessary. The breed enjoys human contact, and shows intelligence,
although it can also be stubborn. Prolonged effort is its weak point, as
the Poitevin sometimes lack endurance. The Poitevin is found in a wide variety
of colors, which are partly the result of the many breeds that influenced it.
It is the only French draft horse that can be found in bay dun, a tan body
color with black mane and tail and primitive markings. This color likely
comes from the Spanish horses that influenced the Flemish horses that later
contributed to the breeding of the Poitevin. The most popular colors are
pure black and seal brown, which came from the influence of Flemish and
Friesian horses. The breed standard accepts all colors, except for pinto and
leopard spotted, and it is common to see gray, bay and bay roan horses, the last
probably being inherited from the Brabant breed. Chestnut and chestnut
roan are also seen, both being a legacy of Breton crosses in the breed.
History The Poitevin breed was created in the
marshes of the Poitou region, especially around Luçon, La Rochelle, Melle and
Niort. It was developed through a mixture of human and natural selection
to the marshy area that it inhabited. Although described as a draft horse, it
was not selected for draft purposes, and was never popular for that use.
Remains of prehistoric horses have been found in the Poitou region, with
Mesolithic remains located near Surgères and Échiré. Some enthusiasts claim that
the Poitevin horse is descended directly from these horses, based on physical
similarities, and claim a common origin with the Tarpan horse painted on the
Lascaux cave walls. However, this has not been confirmed by scientific
studies, and numerous claims by other horse breeds of this same relationship
have been invalidated by further research. Other horses were probably
brought to the area by migrating Celts, and there is a record from the 10th
century of a bishop from Rome asking the Count of Poitou for a mare from the
region. These horses, like mules, were a favorite among the magistrates and
ecclesiastical personnel in the medieval era, and were sold around Niort,
Saint-Maixent, Auvergne, Dauphiné, Languedoc and in Spain. The number of
horses in the area, however, was not well known before the 17th century.
The Poitevin breed as it is known today began to develop in 1599 when King Henry
IV of France requested that Dutch and Flemish engineers, led by Humphrey
Bradley, begin draining the Poitou marshes. They brought with them
Friesian, Brabant and a type of Flemish work horse that was well known in the
13th century. These horses stood under 16.3 hands and weighed up to 1,200
kilograms. They were crossed with native Poitou mares, and this crossbreeding
created a large, slow type, similar to the Flemish work horses of the Dutch
marshes. This type was the forerunner of the modern Poitevin breed.
At the end of the 18th century, the French government tried to impose a
system of crossing Poitevin horses with lighter-weight Norman and Thoroughbred
horses to create cavalry horses. Despite financial incentives, private breeders
protested because they felt that the resulting crossbred horses created poor
quality mules upon further breeding. The changes also affected the
characteristics of the breed that had been developed for work in its marshy
homeland, including large hooves and a calm manner. Some sources argue that at
this point the breed was employed for agricultural and logging uses. Others
state that they were not pulling horses, and were instead used almost solely for
the production of mules.=Production of mules=
Poitevin mares were crossbred with Poitou donkeys to create the famous
Poitou mule, a large, hardy breed. As mules are hybrids, and thus sterile,
they can only be created through crossing a donkey and a horse. The
industry of mule breeding in Poitou has existed since at least the 18th century,
when it was opposed by the government stud farm administration that was
attempting to breed cavalry horses for French troops. At the beginning of the
19th century, the government prohibited breeding mules from mares taller than
11.3 1⁄4 hands, and threatened to castrate all donkeys in the region. In
the 1860s, equine historian Eugene Gayot described a horse that he called the
“poitevine mulassière”, and stated that the main purpose of this breed was to
produce mares from which to breed mules. He added that this breed was also called
the Poitevin. Mares of many breeds were used to produce mules at that point in
history, but Gayot noted that the heavy mares from the Poitou marshes produced
the best mules, likely because the Poitevin mares bequeathed to their
descendents the same heavy bone structure.
Although the Poitevin was not the only breed of horse used for the production
of mules, the Poitou mule was known worldwide. They were in high demand in
the United States from the late 19th century until the beginning of World War
I. During the 1920s, livestock production began to decline. In the
Deux-Sèvres region, especially in the district of Melle, near Luçon and
Saint-Maixent, mule breeding began to be concentrated in ateliers, which were
relatively expensive for breeders.=19th century=
Poitevin colts and fillies were sold at fairs in Marans, Nuaillé, Surgères,
Rochefort, Pont-l’Abbé and Saujon. In 1867, there were 50,000 pure and
crossbred mares. By the early 20th century, there were tens of thousands of
Poitevins in France, but this period saw the beginning of the breed’s decline.
Poitevin colts, which were not used for the breeding of mules, were considered
“soft” and less valuable than the major draft horse breed of the 19th century –
the Percheron. Some horse dealers purchased young gray Poitevin horses,
fed them heavily to make them larger and stronger, and then sold them at the age
of four as Percherons. These “Percherons” were transported to areas
such as Saintonge, Yonne, Nivernais and Gâtinais.
In the early 19th century, the breed was crossed with the Percheron, and with the
Boulonnais between 1860 and 1867. During the same time period, crosses were made
with the Breton, a practice supported by some breeders and denounced by others.
Farmers in the region also began to add Breton blood into the Poitou mule,
giving that animal a more square head and shorter ears. In the Poitevin horse
breed, the crosses resulted in the body becoming longer and lighter, the legs
longer and with less bone, and gray becoming more common as a coat color. In
1860, Eugene Gayot called the mares of the breed “heavy, common, soft and of
medium size”. Breeders chose horses with large joints, thick coats and a high
croup, and had a preference for a black coat color.
In 1861, there were concerns that the old-style Poitevin was becoming extinct,
and questions about whether the Poitou mule retained the quality that it
previously had. The large Poitevin mares became rarer, due to large amounts of
crossbreeding and a lack of care shown towards breeding stock selection.
Thoroughbreds and Thoroughbred crosses, especially at the stud farms in
Saint-Maixent and La Roche-sur-Yon, created the Anglo-Poitevin type, a
half-blood used by the army. The continued draining of the marshes also
influenced the breed. Many Poitevins at this point were actually a mix of Breton
and old-type Poitevin bloodstock. However, a distinction persisted between
the real Poitevin and mixed-blood horses, and farmers who preferred the
former preserved the type, which formed the base for the creation of the breed
studbook. The studbook for the Poitevin horse was
created by the Société Centrale d’Agriculture des Deux-Sèvres on June
26, 1884, with a horse section and a donkey section. The first edition was
released December 31, 1885, setting the physical criteria for the breeding and
ending the practice of promoting crossbred horses as purebreds. It also
marked the end of government intervention against the mule breeding
industry, although bonuses were paid to encourage farmers to breed purebred
horses. In 1902, a breeding syndicate to promote Poitou mules was created, but
disappeared after a lack of advertising by stock breeders. On August 6, 1912,
the French government released a decree officially supporting the mule breeding
industry, backed by the purchase of mules by the French National Stud and
bonuses given to the best stallions.=20th century=
After several revisions, the studbook was closed in 1922 after registering 424
foundation horses. The closing of the studbook brought about additional
purebred breeding and selection based on conformation, color and working ability.
In 1923, an association of Poitevin breeders was founded, but declining
livestock production pushed the group to reorganize in 1937 in order to gain more
support from the government, through bonuses and subsidies.
In the first half of the 20th century, the mule breeding industry collapsed
with the advent of mechanization. By 1922, Poitevin foals became difficult to
sell, and the population dropped dramatically as there was no economic
incentive for breeding. A continued breeding of mules caused the breed to
decline faster than other draft breeds, as purebred horses were not bred as
often. By 1945, breed selection was oriented towards the production of meat,
as the only remaining economic opportunity for farmers. The
conformation of the breed changed slightly to become shorter, but the
Poitevin remained unprofitable for horse meat, as breeders preferred to invest in
herds of Comtois and Breton horses, which were faster growing and higher
yielding. By 1950, there were only about 600 mares
and 50 stallion left in the breed. Increasing mechanization and competition
with other livestock hurt the Poitevin, as did a lack of promotion and
protection. Between 1970 and 1990, the population of the Poitevin varied
between 250 and 300 animals, with an average of 20 new horses entering the
studbook each year. By the early 1990s, population numbers fell to the lowest in
history. Sources are unclear on the number of living Poitevins in the early
1990s, but by 1996 one author says there were 64 newly registered foals and 28
approved breeding stallions, while another gives a total population of 293
horses in 1997.=Conservation and genetic testing=
The breed owes its survival to a small group of enthusiasts, working with the
French National Stud. A genetic study performed in 1994 revealed a genetic
bottleneck in the mid-1900s, with the entire modern population of Poitevins
tracing to one stallion, named Québec, foaled in 1960. There is a significant
risk of inbreeding, leading the Unité Nationale de Sélection et de Promotion
de Race to promote a plan of managed breeding in 1998. At the same time,
crossbreeding with Friesian and Belgian horses was suggested to increase genetic
diversity using morphologically and historically similar breeds. The French
government distributes bonuses to the owners of the best stallions, a program
more important to the Poitevin than to other draft breeds because of the
significant possibility of extinction. The Poitevin had a slight increase in
popularity at the beginning of the 21st century, and could count approximately
100 farms perpetuating the breed. The association had around 300 members, as
well as 83 stallions and 189 mares registered. However, by 2006, the
Poitevin was still considered the most endangered French horse breed, with less
than 100 births per year and a slightly decreasing population. There is almost
no crossbreeding done with outside breeds, in order to maintain the numbers
of purebred stock. In 2008, a second genetic study was conducted in
partnership with the Institut national de la recherche agronomique; this study
considered the Poitevin and four other French breeds to be endangered. It
suggested making these breeds a conservation priority in order to
maintain maximum genetic diversity among the French horse population.
The studbook for the Poitevin is based in Niort, and the breed is the subject
of a conservation breeding plan, the goal of which is to eventually revive
the production of Poitou mules. The conservation plan includes an
experimental infusion of blood from the Boulonnais, and is followed by 70
percent of breeders. L’association nationale des races mulassières du
Poitou manages the studbook for the Poitevin horse, the Poitou donkey and
the Poitou mule, and is recognized by the French Ministry of Agriculture. Its
goals are to ensure the selection of breeding stock that meet the physical
characteristics expected of the breeds, to maintain the studbooks, and to
promote the breeds. There is a breed show held annually in the Poitou region.
The Poitevin breed has very low numbers. In 2011, there were 71 new foals
registered with the studbook. The same year, 227 mares were covered, with 171
being bred to Poitevin stallions. There were 33 stallions registered and 80
active breeders. These numbers represent a decrease from the previous year. Over
the past decade, the highest number of foals registered was 113 in 2008, and
between 80 and 90 foals were registered in the other years. The majority of
breeding farms are located in the Poitou area, including Vendée, Deux-Sèvres,
Vienna and Civray, and some in Charente, near Ruffec. There are National Studs
located in Saintes and Vendée. There are a few breeders in Maine-et-Loire.
The breed is accessible to the public at l’Asinerie nationale de la Tillauderie,
an experimental farm in Dampierre-sur-Boutonne in
Charente-Maritime, and at the Saintes National Stud. Members of the breed are
exhibited at the annual Paris International Agricultural Show.
Approximately a dozen horses are exported each year, mainly to Germany,
Sweden and Switzerland. A few breeding stallions have been exported to the
United States. Breeders in the US have become interested in the conservation of
the breed as a draft animal, as opposed to many Europeans, who are looking for a
leisure animal. A stud farm also exists in Sweden, and one in the United States.
Uses As the stallions of the Poitevin breed
could not be used to produce mules, they were generally sold as two-year-olds at
the summer fair in Vendée and the winter fair in Saint-Maixent, as well as to
horse merchants in Berry, Beauce, Perche and the Midi. In these areas, they were
used for agriculture. In Paris, they were used for pulling omnibuses, and the
French military used the Poitevin for pulling artillery. At the beginning of
the 21st century there has been a new demand for mules for leisure purposes,
but this demand cannot be filled by Poitevin mares until their numbers have
recovered to a sufficient level. Today, Poitevins are used mainly for
driving, both in competitions and for leisure use. They are used to pull
carriages for tourists. Members of the breed can be ridden more comfortably
than other draft breeds due to their slimmer build. They are also used
extensively for equine therapy in France. The Poitevin is used for light
agricultural work in vineyards, and for maintenance of natural wetlands. The
council of Ille-et-Vilaine acquired a herd of Poitevins to maintain the
marshes in the area. The Poitevin also has been used in movies, as a mount for
forest monitors in Melun, harnessed for urban work in Poitier and Niort, and for
the collection of waste on the island of Ré.
Notes References
Bataille, Lætitia. Races équines de France. France Agricole Éditions. ISBN
978-2-85557-154-6. Biteau, Benoît. “Contribution, sur le
plan de la génétique, à la sauvegarde et à la relance du cheval de trait
mulassier”. École nationale d’ingénieurs des travaux agricoles de Bordeaux.
Retrieved 2012-02-07. Bixio. “Race poitevine mulassière”.
Maison rustique du XIXe siècle. À la Librairie agricole. OCLC 4790570.
Collective. Chevaux et poneys. Éditions Artemis. ISBN 2-84416-338-6.
Dal’Secco, Emmanuelle. Les chevaux de trait. Éditions Artemis. ISBN
978-2-84416-459-9. Mavré, Marcel. Attelages et attelées :
un siècle d’utilisation du cheval de trait. France Agricole Éditions. ISBN
978-2-85557-115-7. Moll, Louis; Nicolas, Eugène; Gayot,
Eugène. La connaissance générale du cheval: études de zootechnie pratique,
avec un atlas de 160 pages et de 103 figures. Didot.

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